Glossary of Sanskrit and other Terms



aarati is a daily worship service performed to the Supreme Deity in the form of the Deity personified or to a statue, a picture, or other symbol of God. In this prayer ceremony, offerings are made of fire, incense, ghee (clarified butter), camphor, flowers, rice, sandal paste (chandan), vermillion paste (kumkum), water, etc.

In the temple worship, offerings to the statue, assumed to be a living presence of the Deity, are also made of a seat, ceremonial bath, clothing and food.

abhasa [pronunciation: aabhaas]: reflection of consciousness

abhijna [ubhij^na]: direct perception

abhimana [ubhimaan]: attachment

abhyasa [ubhyaas]: practice

abhyasi [ubhyaasi]: one who practices

achala [uchul]: unmoving; hill or mountain

achit [uchit]: not sentient

acharya [uchurya]: scholar, learned man; a term of respect

adhama [ ]: lowest grade

adhara [aadhaar]: support

adhishtana [udhishthaan]: substratum

adhridha [udhr^dh]: weak; not firm

adhyaropa [udhyaarop]: superimposition

adhyasika [udhyaasik]: superimposed

advaita [udvait]: non-duality; incorrectly termed monism; a system of thought and a vedantist sect founded by Shankara

advaitin [ ]: non-dualist

adya [aadyaa]: primordial; original

adyatmika sakti [aadyaatmik sh^akti]: power of the Self

agami (a. karma) [aagaami karm]: actions of the present life expected to bear fruit in future births

agni [ ]: fire

aham [uhum]: embodied self; soul; the ego; the sense of “I”

aham Brahmasmi [uhum bruhmaasmi]: I am Brahman

aham sphurana [uhum sphurun]: the throb of Self-bliss in the heart

aham svarupa [uhum svuroop]: one’s true nature

aham vritti [vr^tti]: the ‘I’-thought

ahankara [uhunkaar]: ‘I’ sense; ego-self; ‘the doer’

ahimsa [uhimsaa]: nonviolence

ajna [aaj^naa]: direction; injunction

ajnana [uj^naan]: ignorance; knowledge of diversity

ajnani [uj^naani]: one who has not realized the Self; unenlightened; ignorant of the Self

akara [aakaar]: form or shape

akasa (akasha) [aakaash^]: ether; space

akritopasaka [ukritopaasuk]: one who has not done upasana or meditation

alayavijnana [ ]: pure, self-existent consciousness

amrita [umrit]: immortal

amritanadi [umritunaadi]: the channel for the flow of consciousness from the Heart (Source) to the mind; the path by which it travels is termed archis

anadi [unaadi]: without beginning

ananda [aanund]: bliss; happiness; joy; Transcendence attained primarily through the affections manifests more as Bliss than as Knowledge

anandatman [aanundutmun]: self in the state of bliss

ananta [ununt]: endless; infinite

anartha [unurtha]: evil; worthless

anatman [unaatmun]: non-Self

anava [aanuv]: limitation

anichcha [unichchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’, pronounced without any vowel between; good luck!]: involuntary

anitya [unitya]: transitory

antah (antar) [untuH (untur)]: internal

antah karanam (antahkarana) [untuH kurun(uM)]: means of perception; the mind; the ego; the thinking power

antah pranayama [untuH praanaayaam]: internal breath-regulation

antardhana [unturdhaan]: disappearance from sight

antarmukha drishti [unturmukh dr^shti]: inward vision

antarmukti manas [unturmukti munus]: inward-turned mind; mind retained in the Heart

anu [unu]: atom

anubhava [unubhuv]: experience; realization

anushthana [unushthaan]: practice; attainment of knowledge

anuttara samyak sambodhi [unuttur sumyuk sumbodhi]: see samyak sambodhi

ap [aap]: water

apana [upaan]: the life-force that goes down

apara [upur]: the lower; inferior

aparoksha [upurok^sh]: direct; immediate; direct experience (as opposed to sensory experience)

apavada [upuvaad]: removal

aprana [upraan]: beyond manifest life; devoid of life

archis [ ]: see amritanadi

artha [urtha]: money

arti see aarati


arudha [aarudh]: attainment

aruna [urun]: red

arupa [uroop]: formless; timeless being

asamsakti [usumsh^ukti]: non-attachment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

asamskrta [usunskr^t]: not pertaining to the impermanent; Chinese wu wei

asan – Generally, a mat or blanket on which a person sits, cross-legged, on the ground or floor. Also refers to a more elaborate seat on which a yogi or saint sits to perform worship or to receive devotees.

asana [aasun]: yogic posture

asat [usut]: unreal

asesha sakshi [ush^esh saak^shi]: witness of all

ashram [ ]: hermitage. In modern usage, a religious community, a place for spiritual training or renewal.

ashtanga Yoga [ushtaang yog]: Yoga consisting of eight stages of discipline

asrama [aash^rum]: one of the four life-stages of a spiritual seeker; the dwelling of a sage and his followers

asraya [ ]: ground of Reality (as opposed to movement)

asthira [usthira]: unsteady

asuddha [ush^uddh]: bliss

asukavi [usukuvi]: one who can versify impromptu

asura [usur]: demon; similar to a Titan or fallen angel

ati jagrat [uti jaagrut]: beyond waking

ati sunya [uti sh^oonya]: beyond the void

atiasrama (atyasrama) [utiaash^rum]: above the four stages of life

atita [uteet]: beyond

atma (atman) [aatm(un)]: the Self; principle of life and sensation; I AM; subjective moment of consciousness; in the highest sense, the Universal Spirit or the Supreme Soul of the Universe (see Paramatman)

atma dhyana [aatma dhyaan]: contemplation on the Self

atma jnani [aatma j^naani]: one who has realized the Self

atma nishta [aatma nisht]: abiding in the Self

atma prajna [aatma pruj^naa]: innate Self-consciousness

atma prema [aatma prem]: Self-love

atma sakti [aatma sh^ukti]: power of the Self

atma siddhi [aatma siddhi]: Self-realization

atma vichara [aatma vichaar]: inquiry into the Self

atma vidya [aatma vidya]: knowledge of the Self

atmasakshatkara [ ]: Self-realization; enlightenment

atmanusandhana [aatmunusundhun]: thinking constantly of the Self

atyanta vairagyam [utyunt vairugyum]: total dispassion

avarana [aavurun]: covering

avastha traya [uvusthaa truya]: the three states of consciousness, namely waking, dream and sleep

avatar [uvutaar]: incarnation of God

avidya [uvidyaa]: nescience; ignorance of our true nature; all consciousness or knowledge, so long as it is restricted to the subject-object manifold

avritta chakshus [aavr^tt chuk^shus]: introverted look

ayatana [aayutun]: repository



baba – A renunciate or saint; Father, in the sense of priest or God.

bahir pranayamam [buhir praanaayaam]: external breath regulation

bahir mukha drishti [buhir mukh dr^shti]: outward turned consciousness

bahir mukhi manas [buhir mukh munus]: letting the mind go out of the Heart; externalization

bahudaka [buhooduk]: a sannyasin who wanders about

bahya [baahya]: external

bala [baal]: child

bandha [bundh]: bondage

bandha hetu [bundh hetu]: cause of bondage

beeja [beej]: seed (see bija )

Bhagavad-gita [bhuguvud geet]: Hindu religious scripture, “almost wholly in the form of a dialogue between Krishna, who represents the Self, the Atman, or Cosmic Consciousness, and Arjuna, who symbolizes the egoistic man of action. It gives a brief resume of the Roads by which Union or Yoga may be attained. This is one of the most important manuals that point the Way to Cosmic Consciousness.” (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)

Contains the essence of Lord Krishna’s teaching in the form of a dialogue between Lord krishn and Arjuna, Krishna ‘s greatest devotee. The Gita is a segment of the Mahabharata

bhagavan [bhuguvun]: God; the Lord; one who has realized his identity with the Self

bhajan (bhajana) [bhujun]: Generally, hymns to the Divine. Also used in the sense of expression of worship through several forms, including the devotee’s prayers, meditation. Worship is also work dedicated to the Divine.

bhakta [bhukt]: A devotee of God, or of a guru. A person filled with devotion.

bhakti [bhukti]: devotion; love (of God)

bhakti marga [bhukti maarg]: path of devotion

bhandara – A joyous festival feast

bharata [bhurut]: shining soul

bhashyakara [bhaashyukur]: commentator

bhavana [bhaavun]: contemplation of a personified deity with great emotion

bheda [bhed]: difference; differentiation

bhikshu [bhik^shu]: Buddhist monk, literally beggar

bhoga [bhog]: enjoyment

bhogya vasta [ ]: child

bhogyam [bhogyuM]: that which is enjoyed

bhokta [bhokt]: enjoyer

Bhole Baba ki Jai! – Honor or glory (jai) to the simple (bhole) father.

bhuma [bhoomaa]: all-comprehensive; the Absolute

bhumika [bhoomikaa]: stage

bhutatathata [ ]: the Absolute viewed as the universal womb

bija [beej]: seed; source

bija-mantra [beej muntra]: a one-word seed-mantra or exclamation of power

bodha [bodh]: knowledge; Truth

bodhi [bodhi]: enlightenment; full illumination; the opposite of avidya

bodhisattva [bodhisuttva]: destined for enlightenment but wants to take all beings along

bodhikaya [bodhikaaya]: the body of the Absolute viewed as the fruit of enlightenment

Brahma [bruhm]: One of the triumvirate of hindu forms of God who are responsible for creating, maintaining/sustaining, and destruction/purification/restoration of the universe. Brahma is the Creator.

brahmachari [bruhmuchaari]: a celibate; student stage of life

brahmacharya [bruhmuchurya]: celibacy

Brahmaivaham [bruhmaivaahuM]: Brahman am I

Brahmajnana [bruhmuj^naan]: realization of one’s absolute being

Brahmajnani [bruhmuj^naani]: one who has realized the Self

brahmakaravritti [bruhmaakaaruvr^tti]: concept in the form of Brahman

Brahman [bruhmun]: the Universal Self; the Absolute. The Hindu concept of God as beyond or above the form of human attributes– totally detached, Pure Consciousness, the blissful Source from which comes everything that exists.

Brahmanishta [bruhmaanishtha]: one who is established in Brahman

Brahmarandhra [ ]: Brahma-aperature; opening in the crown of the head; fontanelle; “the tiniest of aperatures, in which is the silent, primordial sound, which gives you the impression that you are, but you really are not” (Nisargadatta)

Brahmavid [bruhmuvid]: one who has realized Brahman

Buddha [buddh]: one who is aware; a synonym for the Buddhakaya or Absolute state, where the Real Self is known for what it is

buddhi [ same ]: intellect; one of the four aspects of the internal organ; “It is also Compassion, in the highest sense, the very Soul of the Law of Harmony or Equilibrium” (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)



chaitanya [chaitunya]: consciousness

chakra [chukra]: wheel; subtle center of energy in the body

chakshus [chuk^shus]: eye

chanchala [chunchula]: changing, fickle

chandrayana [ ]: particular method of expiatory fasting

chela [ ]: student; disicple

chidabhasa [chidaabhaas]: reflected consciousness

chidakash [ ]: consciousness

chidananda [chidaanund]: bliss of the Self

chidvyoman (chitt vyoman) [chidvyomun]: expanse of consciousness

chinmaya [chinmuya]: full of consciousness

chinta [chintaa]: thought, idea

chintamani [chintaamuni]: wish-fulfilling gem

chit [ same ]: Absolute Intelligence, universal consciousness

chitakasa [ ]: Mental ether (all-pervading)

chit jada granthi [chit jud grunthi]: the knot between pure consciousness and the insentient body; the ego

chitta [chitt]: memory aspect of mind; the mental mode turned towards objects

chitta nirodha [chitt nirodh]: control of mind

chitta suddhi [chitt sh^uddhi]: purity of mind

chitta vilasa [chitt vilaas]: play of mind

chittaikograta [chittaikogrutaa]: one-pointedness of mind



dahara vidya [duhuraa vidyaa]: contemplation of the deity in the heart

dana [daan]: gift; alms; relinquishment

danda – God’s punishing stick or rod; also used as a walking stick.

darsan(a), darshan [dursh^un]: seeing; vision. the enjoyment of the presence and vision of a respected or revered person or of God, in any of His forms.

darbar – A meeting of a king’s or of God’s royal court.

dasi [daasee]: courtesan

deha(m) [deha(M)]: body; existence

‘deham, naham, koham, soham’ I am the body; I am not the body; who am I? I am He.

dehatma buddhi [dehaatma buddhi]: I-am-the-body

dehavasana [dehuvaasunaa]: attachment to the body

deva [devaaH]: a god or celestial being

devakanya [ ]: a class of minor female divinity

devata [devutaa]: a goddess

Devi [ same ]: the Divine Mother; a goddess

dharana [dhaarunaa]: concentration of mind; one of the eight stages of Raja Yoga

dharma [dhurmuH]: teaching of Buddha; universal law; way or path; an entity of any sort – thing, idea, concept, etc; virtuous deeds; harmonious life; natural duty; inherent qualities

dharmakaya [dhurmukaayaa]: the Dharma-Body or the Absolute, viewed as the Ultimate Reality with which Buddhas or Enlightened Beings are one and indivisible

dharma dhatu [dhurm dhaatu]: the Absolute, i.e. the Dharma-Realm

Dharma Raja [dhurm raaj]: the Buddha

dharma sastri [dhurm sh^aastri]: one well-versed in the scriptures relating to dharma

dhatu(s) [dhaatu]: humors; constituent elements of the body

dhriti [dhr^tiM]: steadfastness

dhyana [dhyaan]: meditation; contemplation; the seventh rung in the eightfold ladder of yoga

dhyana siddhi [dhyaan siddhi]: successful meditation

dikpalas [dikpulus]: gods who protect the various quarters

diksha [dik^sh]: spiritual initiation

divya chakshus [divya chuk^shus]: divine eye

drashta [drushtaa]: seer

dridha [dr^dh]: firm

drik [dr^k]: he who sees; the subject

drishti [dr^shti]: look; seeing

drishti srishti [dr^shti sr^shti]: simultaneous creation

drisya [dr^sh^ya]: that which is seen; the object

drisya vilaya [dr^sh^ya viluya]: disappearance of the objective world

drisyanuviddha [dr^sh^yaanuviddh]: associated with something seen

dukha [dukh]: misery; frustration

dvaita [dvait]: duality

dvandva [dvundv]: pair of opposites

dvividha (dwividha) [dvividh]: two-fold



eka [ek]: one

ekagrata [ekaagrutaa]: concentration

ekanta vasa [ekaant vaas]: free from mental concepts; “dwelling in mental solitude”



Ganapati [gunuputi]: the elder son of Siva, the remover of obstacles; same as Ganesha, the chief of Siva’s hosts

ganapati [gunuputi]: consciousness

ganesan [ ]: darkness

ganja [gunj]: a narcotic; hashish

gate [guta]: gone

gatha [ ]: a verse, usually of a sacred kind

Gayatri [gaayutri]: a sacred Vedic mantra

gita [geet]: song

gnana [j^naan]: see jnana

gnani [j^naani]: see jnani

gopuram [ same ]: temple tower

granthi [grunthi]: knot

granthi nasam [grunthi naash^um]: destruction of the knot (of ignorance)

grihastha [gr^husthaaH]: householder

grihini [gr^hini]: housewife

guna(s) [gun]: the three fundamental qualities, tendencies or stresses that underlie all manifestations: sattva, rajas and tamas

gunatita [gunaateet]: one who has transcended the gunas

guru [ same ]: a spiritual master

gurudev – A disciple’s affectionate term for his or her guru. It refers to the guru as God (deva), reflecting the disciple’s surrender to the guru, who then leads the disciple to God.

guru kripa [guru kr^puH]: guru’s grace



Haidiyakhandi – Mahendra Maharaja always used to chant the name of “Haidiyakhandi”….The first letter “Hai” – H and AI represents the seed of ether (akasa). Ether, like space, is all pervading. Both Lord Hari (Visnu) and Lord Hara (Siva) assumed this first letter “H”. The Supreme Divine has been coming to earth tima and time again, assuming the seed of the letter “H” as Haidiyakhandi, the Divine again incarnated on earth for the welfare of mankind. “Whenever the Lord has incarnated on earth, He has done so in conjunction with His eternal Energy (sakti): Laksmi-Narayana, Gauri-Sankara, Sita-Rama, Rhada-Krishna. Sri Babaji, in His last incarnation, came with Mother Amba. “AI” is the seed of pure energy. “H” is the seed which is in the sounds of the root-mantras Aim, Hrim, Klim, Srim.

Mother Amba resides in the heart of the Lord, having been assumed into Him. The Lord in whose heart the Divine Mother dwells is Lord Haidiyakhandi : together they are represented by the sound “H and AI”.

Lord Sambasadasiva is also the player of the damru (drum); its sound is symbolised by the letter “D”. This sound of the damru opens the mysteries of time and space. The Lord has assumed the letter “D” and has appeared as Lord Haidiyakhandi. “D” may also represent the seed of “danda” (staff). The Lord who has appeared is characterised by carrying a staff. This incarnation is also known as Lakulin, he who carries a “lakuti” (staff). This incarnation of Sri babaji is refered to in the Siva Purana, vol. 3, Satarudrasamhita, vv 43 – 50, Benares 1978. A temple where He is worshipped is still existent near the city of Baroda, Gujarat, in Kayavarohan.

The letters “YA” stand for the one who protects the whole of creation – these are the next letters in the name Haidiyakhandi. “Y” and “A” denote Yati – risi (sage, seer), whereby a risi stands for him whose nature is detached, who lives in solitude, away from human dwellings in the wilderness of mountains and forests, unattached. “A” is the sound-seed, representing the divine Mother – She who is compassionate, caring for all those who come to His lotus feet, who is looking on the sufferings of the world with eyes of mercy. The Lord has assumed this letter and appeared as Haidiyakhandi.

When the universe came into existence, Lord Siva appeared in the form of a flame represented by the sound-seed “KHAN”. In this form of eternal light, He had given to Lord Brahma and Lord Hari (Visnu) the tasks to create and maintain the universe. Lord Sambasadasiva assumed also this sound and appeared in mythical time to bhakta Prahlada from the pillar (Khamba), taking incarnation as Narasimha (Lord Visnu’s fourth incarnation) who has now come again, assuming the letters “KHAN”, as Haidiyakhandi. The Lord always appears at a time of strife and conflict to protect righteousness and show to man the path of the true timeless law of God.

The letter “D” and “I” combine two aspects of the Divine: a) “D” – those who are full of fear and have lost their way in the kali yuga are cared for bythe Lord to make them fearless; He has taken incarnation as Haidiyakhandi. b) “I” represents the Supreme, who is the absolute Lord to His devotees. He is the one who is formless, but has taken form to give happiness to those who believe in Him, to as having its beauty; cf., “lotus-feet”, “lotus-hands”, etc. padmasana – lotus pose is the most perfect pose for meditation.

The application of the name Haidiyakhandi is very wide. The name with or without “OM” is used as a mantra; the name represents the five elements; it is further used in tantra, in ritual worship (puja) and fire-offering (yajna), etc. The name by itself is also a representation of the mysteries of manifestation.

hamsa [hums]: advanced sannyasi

Hanuman [ ]: a powerful deity, son of the Wind god; great devotee of Sri Rama; famous monkey who helped Rama in his fight with Ravana

hasta [hust]: hand

hatha yoga [hutha yog]: a form of yoga involving body postures, and for gaining control over Prana

Herakhan (Haidakhan; Hairakhan) Vishwa Mahadham – Shri Babaji’s ashram and the surrounding sacred area. The words translate as Herakhan, the most wonderful or greatest place in the universe.

hetu [ same ]: cause, reason

hinayana [heenuyaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism; prevalent in Southeast Asia

hiranyagarbha [hirunyugurbh]: universal consciousness; cosmic mind; cosmic egg; the Unmanifested mind (see mahat tattva ), the “golden womb”

homa [hom]: sacrifice in fire

hridaya(m) [hr^duya(M)]: heart; spiritual center of the body

hridaya granthi [hr^duya grunthi]: knot of the heart; the idea that one is one’s body

hrit [hr^t]: heart

hrit pundarika [hr^t pundureek]: the heart lotus



ichcha [ichchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’, pronounced without any vowel between]: desire; will

idam [idum]: this

Indra [indraa]: Lord of the devas; first student of Brahma vidya

indriya(s) [indriyuH]: senses

Isa [eesh^]: Supreme Lord

ishta devata [isht devutaa]: the god one likes to worship

Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of Lord of the worlds

Isvara anugraha [eesh^vur unugruha]: God’s grace

Isvara drishti [eesh^vur dr^shti]: seeing everything as God

Isvara prasada [eesh^vur prusaad]: God’s grace

Isvara svarupa [eesh^vur svuroop]: the true form of God



jada [jud]: insentient

jaganmaya [jugunmaaya]: the mystery of the world

jagat [jugut]: world; changing

jagrat [jaagrut]: waking state

jagrat sushupti [jaagrut sushuptiH]: aware or awake while asleep; being aware but not concerned

jai [ same ]: victory

Jai Maha Maya Ki – Honor or Glory to the Great (maha) Illusory Force. Hail to the Primordial energy of the Universe. Hail to the Universal Mother.

jala [jula]: water

janma [junma]: birth

jap, japa [jup]: repetition of a sacred word or syllable or name of God (verbal or mental).

japa karta [jup kurtaa]: one who does japa

-ji- A suffix reflecting respect and love, as Babaji, Prabhuji, etc.

jirna [jeern]: decayed

jiva [jeev]: individual soul or ego

jivanmukta [jeevunmukt]: realized soul

jivanmukti [jeevunmukti]: liberation while alive

jivatman [jeevaatmun]: the individual self

jnana(m) [j^naan(aM)]: knowledge of the Absolute; enlightenment; Supreme Knowledge; Self-realization

jnana bhumika(s) [j^naan bhoomikaa]: stages of knowledge (seven)

jnana chakshus [j^naan chuk^shus]: eye of wisdom

jnana drishti [j^naan dr^shti]: wisdom-insight

jnana grantha [j^naan gruntha]: Vedantic works

jnana lakshana [j^naan luk^shun]: sign of wisdom

jnana marga [j^naan maarg]: path of knowledge

jnana vichara [j^naan vichaar]: inquiry regarding knowledge

jnana yoga [j^naan yog]: the method of realizing the Absolute through knowledge

jnanagni [j^naanaagni]: fire of wisdom

jnanameva chakshus [ ]: All-seeing eyes

jnanendriya [j^nunendriya]: sense organ

jnani [j^naani]: sage; one who has realized the Self

jothi (jyoti) [jyotiH]: light; effulgence



Kailas [kailaas]: a mountain in the Himalayas reputed to be the home of Siva

kaivalya [kaivulya]: Absolute Oneness; final emancipation

kali yuga [kuli yug]: the last of the four ages of the world. The Age (Yuga) in which materialistic forces dominate the activities of the world and spiritual values decline.

kalpana [kulpunaa]: idea; imagination of the mind; creation

kama [kaam]: desire; physical love; lust

kantha [kuntha]: throat

kanthabharana [kunthaabhurun]: neck ornament

kanya [kunyaa]: virgin

kara [ ]: a combining form meaning achieved or achievement

karana [kaarun]: cause

karana sarira [kaarun sh^ureer]: causal body

karma [kurm]: action; work; deeds; also the result of action

karma marga [kurm maarg]: path of ritual, religious duties, and action

karma samya [kurm saamya]: good and bad actions in equal proportions

karma traya [kurm truya]: the three kinds of karma, namely sanchita, agami and prarabdha

karma yoga [kurm yog]: the spiritual path of action

karmendriya [kurmendriya]: organ of action

karpura arati [kurpoor aaruti]: the waving of lighted camphor during puja

karta [kurtaa]: he who does an act; doer

kartrtva [kurtr^tva]: doership

kartrtva buddhi [kurtr^tva buddhi]: sense of being the doer

kashaya [kushaaya]: latent impurity

kashaya [kaashaaya]: ochre-colored garment

Kathgharia Dham – temple and asrama of Old Haidakhan Baba, near Haldwani, U.P.

kayakalpa [kaayukulp]: medicinal preparation for prolonging life

kayasiddhi [kaayusiddhi]: making the body proof against injury

kendra [ ]: center; heart

kevala kumbhaka [kevul kumbhuk]: retention of breath leading to stilling of the mind

kevala nirvikalpa [kevul nirvikulp]: the state of remaining without concepts; bliss of vijnana

kevala samadhi [kevul sumaadhi]: samadhi in which activities of body and mind are only merged

khanda [khund]: division

khyati [khyaati]: theory

kirtan – Religious songs which repeat the names of God. For example, the mantra Om Namaha Shivaya is sung for minutes on end to any of a dozen or more tunes.

klesa [klesh^]: a defilement, passion etc.

kousalam [koush^ulum]: skill

kosa [ ]: sheath

krama mukti [krum mukti]: liberation by degrees

krama srishti [krum sr^shti]: gradual creation

krida [kr^d]: play; pastime

Krishna – Lord Krishna, a manifestation of God on earth, in India in prehistoric times. The Mahabharata, a great Indian epic, contains the stories of His lifetime. The Bhagavad Gita, which is contained within the Mahabharata, summarizes Lord Krishna’s spiritual teachings.

kritopasaka [kritopaasuk]: one who has done upasana or meditation

kriya [ ]: physical action

krodha [krodh]: anger

kshanti [k^shunti]: forebearance

kshetra [k^shetra]: temple; in Yoga, field of the body

Kshetrajna [k^shetruj^na]: the conscious principle (Knower) in the field of the body; the absolute witness of the three states of the self – waking, dream and sleep

kshipta [k^shipt]: active

kumbha [kumbh]: pot used for keeping water

kumbhaka [kumbhuk]: retention of breath

kumkuma [ same ]: vermilion powder applied to the forehead

kundalini [kundulini]: primordial cosmic energy located in the individual; mystic circle of three and a half coils situated in the umbilical region; yogic principle of serpent power

kutichaka [kuteechuk]: a sannyasin who lives permanently in a hut

kuvasana [kuvaasun]: bad tendency



laghu [lughu]: light; easy

lakshana [luk^shun]: sign; definition

lakshya [luk^shya]: aim; target; goal; attention

lakshyartha [luk^shyaartha]: implied meaning

laya [luya]: dissolution; merging; in Yoga, absorption of breath and mind in the heart

lila (leela) [leela]: play or sport. The activities of God in one of His human forms. What we see as specifically God’s action.

linga [ling]: symbol

linga sarira [ling sh^ureer]: subtle body

loka [lok]: world; that which is seen

loukika [loukik]: worldly



madhya [mudhya]: center; mixed; middling

madhyama [mudhyum]: a stage in uttering sounds; middle grade

Mahabharata – The story of Lord Krishna’s period in human form on earth. The era was a time of a great war symbolic of the destruction of evil in society.

Mahaprabhuji – Maha means great; prabhu means Lord, or God. Mahaprabhu means the Supreme God. The suffix ji is used as an added term of reverence and love. The title of Baba Haidakhan

mahadakash [ ]: the entire universe; world of action

maha [ ]: great

maharshi (Maha Rishi) [muhur^shi]: great rishi or sage

mahaparinirvana [muhaapurinirvaan?]: ultimate Nirvana (Nirvana can be achieved in this lifetime; ultimate Nirvana then follows at death)

mahasunya [muhaash^oonya]: great void

mahat [muhut]: intellectual principle as source of ahankara

mahat tattva (mahattava) [muhaat tuttva]: essential principle of being; the great principle (from the Absolute emantes the Unmanifest, from it Mahat, and from Mahat the ahankara)

mahatma [muhaatmaa]: lofty soul; highly spiritual person

mahavakya(s) [muhaavaakyaa]: the four main sentences proclaiming the truth of Brahman, one from each Veda

Mahavtar – An avatar is a Being divinely sent to earth, born of a womb. A mahavtar (maha avatar) is a manifestation of God, not born of a woman.

mahayana [muhaayaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism, prevalent in the more northerly countries of Asia – China , Tibet , Japan etc.

Mahesvara [muhesh^vuraH]: one of the five aspects of Siva, as veiling the Truth from souls till their karma is completely worked out; also, Siva as Para-Brahman, the Absolute

malaparipaka [mulupuripaak]: complete removal of impurity

malina [mulin]: impure

manana [munan]: constant thinking over what has been heard; reflection; meditation; the second of the three stages of Vedantic realization

manas [munus]: mind, reason, mentality; also used for the aggregate of chitta, buddhi, manas and ahankara

mangala – “auspicious”; a short preamble, paying homage and dedicating the work to the respective deity of worship.

mani [muni]: jewel

manolaya [munoluya]: (temporary) subsidence of the mind; dissolution of the mind into its cause

manomaya kosa [munomaaya kosh^]: sheath of mind

manonasa [munonaash^]: extinction of the mind

manonigraha [munonigruha]: rendering the mind quiescent

manta [muntaa]: thinker

mantra (mantram) [muntra(M)]: sacred syllable(s) used in meditation; constitute the main part of the Vedas as sacred formulas, prayers or sacred verse; they were revealed to the risis by inspiration; they contain profound and subtle significance, based on rhythmic sound as correspondence to organs of the body, states of being, and consciousness, uniting all three; the power of mantras depends on thier repetition, correct enunciation, the right timing. There is nothing beyond the poer of mantra. Through mastery of the mantra, all siddhis (perfections, powers) are attained.

mantra japa [muntra jap]: repetition of a mantra

marana [muruN]: causing death through supernatural powers

marga [maarg]: path

maru marichika [muru mureechikaa]: mirage seen in a desert

math (mutt) [ ]: meeting place; abode of Sadhus

mati [muti]: thinking power

mauna [ same ]: see mouna

maya [maayaa]: illusion; the power of Brahman by which it manifests the world; the veiling and projecting power of the universe

maya vada [maayaa vaad]: the doctrine of maya

mayavadi [ ]: one who says the world is an illusion

mayasakti [maayaash^ukti]: the power of maya

medha [medhaa]: intellect

mitha [ ]: non-existent

mithya [mithyaa]: the false; unreal

moda [mod]: joy which is higher than priya

moksha [mok^sh]: Liberation; freedom from transmigration

moodha [moodh]: dull

moola [mool]: root; source

mooladhara [moolaadhaar]: one of the yogic centers of the body

mouna (mauna) [ same ]: Silence; the Truth of Brahman, expressed by the Brahman-knower by his mere abidence in stillness

mouna diksha [ ]: initiation by silence

mriga trishna [mr^g tr^shn]: water of a mirage

mudra [mudraa]: hand pose in worship and dance

mukta [ same ]: one who is liberated

mukti [ same ]: Liberation

mula [ ]: origin; root; base

mulavidya [moolaavidyaa]: primal ignorance

mumukshu [mumuk^shu]: one who aspires to Liberation; the first stage, when the seeker feels that there is something beyond this material universe but is still identified with his body-mind; the next stage is that of the sadhaka

mumukshutva [mumuk^shutva]: desire for Liberation

muni [ same ]: sage; austere person

murti [ same ]: idol



na medhaya [nuh medhuya]: not by the intellect

nada [naad]: mystic sound; subtle sound accompanied by an effulgence

nadasvaram [naadusvurum]: the pipe of the South Indian piper

nadi(s) [naadi]: yogic nerves conveying the life force; main ones are Ida, Pingala and Sushumna

naham [naahum]: I am not

naishtika brahmacharya [naishtik bruhmuchurya]: lifelong celibacy

nama [naam]: name; the name of God

nama japa [naam jup]: repetition of the name of God

nama sankirtan [naam sungkeertun]: singing the names of God

nama smarana [naam smurun]: remembering and repeating the name of God

namarupa [numurup]: name and form; the nature of the world

namaskar(a) [numuskaar]: homage; prostration before God or Guru

nana [naanaa]: diversity

naraka [nuruk]: hell

nasa [naash^]: destruction

nava [nuv]: new

neti-neti [ same ]: “not this, not this”; negating all names and forms in order to arrive at the eternal underlying truth

nididhyasana [nididhyaasun]: the last of the three stages of vedantic realization; uninterrupted contemplation

nijananda [nijaanund]: true bliss

nirakara upasana [niraakaar upaasunaa]: meditation on the formless

nirasa [niraash^]: desirelessness

nirguna [nirgun]: without attributes

Nirgunabrahman [ ]: the impersonal, attributeless Absolute

nirguna upasana [nirgun upaasunaa]: meditation on the attributeless Brahman

nirmanakaya [ ]: the Body of Transformation in which Buddhas and Bodhisattvas take on physical characteristics similar to those of ordinary beings for the purpose of delivering such beings

nirodha [nirodh]: control

nirvana [nirvaan]: Liberation; the final state into which beings enter when, becoming Enlightened, they are no longer bound by the consciousness of an illusory ego; release from samsara

nirvikalpa samadhi [nirvikulp sumaadhi]: the highest state of concentration, in which the soul loses all sense of being different from the universal Self, but a temporary state from which there is a return to ego-consciousness

nirvikappa [ ]: without the modifications of the mind

nisarga [ ]: nature

nischala bhava [nishchulaa bhuv]: steadfastness; Eternity

nishkama, niskama [nishkaam]: desirelessness

nishkama karma [nishkaam kurm]: acts done without a motive

nishta [nishtha]: abidance in firm meditation

nitya [ same ]: eternal

nitya siddha [nitya siddh]: ever present

nivritti [nivr^tti]: destruction; cessation of activity

nivritti marga [nivr^tti maarg]: path of renunciation

niyama [niyum]: law, rule, discipline as ordained for the second of eight yogic stages



om [ same ]: a mystic syllable, used as a mantra

owpacharika (aupacharika) [aupuchaarik]: in a worldly sense



padarthabhavini [pudaarthaa bhaavinee]: absolute nonperception of objects; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

padmasana [pudmaasun]: the ‘lotus’ yogic posture

panchakshari [punchaak^shaari]: a mantra of five syllables sacred to Siva

pandit [pundeet]: learned man; scholar; man of wisdom

para [puraa]: higher; supreme; other; in Tantricism, unmanifest sound

para bhakti [puraa bhukti]: supreme devotion

para nadi [puraa naadi]: a yogic nerve

para vibhuti [puraa vibhooti]: superior vibhuti

parabraham [purubruhm]: the Absolute

Parabrahman [ ]: the Supreme Absolute

param [purum]: transcendental

paramahamsa [purumuhums]: a sannyasin who has attained Self-realization

paramakash [purumukush]: the Absolute

paramapada [purumupaad]: Supreme state

paramarthika [paarumaarthik]: Absolute; true Self

paramarthika satyam (p. satyan) [paarumaarthik sutyum]: absolute reality

paramatma(n) [purumaatma(n)]: the Supreme Self; Universal Brahman

paramita [purumit]: a means of crossing to the further shore, thereby entering Nirvana

paranchi khani [puraanchi khaani]: outgoing

parantapa [puruntup]: Arjuna, as ‘he who destroys his enemy’

pareccha [purechchhaa; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’, pronounced with no vowel between]: by another’s will

parinama vada [purinaam vaad]: the theory of Brahman changing into the world

parinirvana [purinirvaan]: beyond nirvana; used to indicate that the concept of nirvana as the blissful opposite of samsara doesn’t point to the final realization

paripurnam [puripoornum]: the perfect state

paroksha [purok^sh]: hearsay; indirect

phala [phul; NOT ful]: fruit; the result of an act

phala chaitanyam [phul chaitunyum]: knowledge

phala data [phul daataa]: dispenser of the results of our acts

phala sruti [phul sh^ruti]: description of the result of an act

pisacha(s) [pish^uchaa]: demon(s)

poorna (see purna)

pradakshina [pruduk^shin]: going around a sacred person or place

pradeepta [prudeept]: shining brightly

prajna [praaj^na]: consciousness; awareness; highest wisdom, transcendent wisdom; also employed as a synonym for the universal ‘substance’

prajnana [pruj^naan]: full consciousness

prajnana ghana [pruj^naan ghun]: Brahman, the Absolute; immutable Knowledge

prakriti [prukriti]: nature; primal substance out of which all things are created; Maya; causal matter; also called shakti

pralaya [pruluya]: complete merging; dissolution (of the world)

pramada [prumaad]: swerving from abidance in the Absolute

pramana [prumaan]: means of valid knowledge

pramata(r) [prumaat(ur)]: knower, cognizer

pramoda [prumod]: joy higher than moda

prana [praan]: life-force, breath, vital air that goes up

pranasakti [praanush^ukti]: the power of the vital forces

pranava [prunuv]: another term for Om

pranava japa [prunuv jup]: incantation of Om

pranayama [praanaayum]: breath control

prapatti [pruputti]: surrender

prapti [praapti]: attainment

prarabdha [praarubdh]: the part of one’s karma (destiny) to be worked out in this life

prasad(a) [prusaad(a)]: divine blessing; food which has been offered to God and afterwards distributed among the devotees

prasthana traya [prusthaan truya]: the threefold canon of Vedanta (Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita)

pratibhasika satya [praatibhaasik sutya]: illusory reality as it appears to an individual

pratikam [pruteekum]: symbol

pratikriya [prutikriyaa]: remedy

pratyabhijna [prutyubhij^na]: recognition

pratyahara [prutyaahaar]: withdrawal of senses from objectivity; fifth rung in the Raja Yoga ladder

pratyaksha [prutyuk^sh]: direct, immediate

Pratyeka-Buddha [prutyek buddh]: one who achieves Enlightenment on his own and who does not then go forth to preach the Dharma

pravritti [pruvr^tti]: pursuing what is desirable

pravritti marga [pruvr^tti maarg]: path of action

prayaschitta [praayush^chitt]: a rite for expiating sin

prayatna [pruyutna]: proper and adequate effort

prema [prem]: divine love [for God]

preta [pret]: a hungry, tantalized ghost, led by evil karma into that sad but temporary state of existence

prithvi (prthvi) [pr^thvi]: earth

priya [ same ]: joy; dear

puja [pooj]: ceremonial worship with flowers, water etc.

punya [ same ]: merit

puraka [pooruk]: inhalation

purana [puraan]: old; eighteen ancient books of stories embodying religious symbolism, attributed to Vyasa

puri [puree]: city

puriashtaka [puriushtuk]: subtle body consisting of eight phases

purna (purnam) [poorn(uM)]: full; infinite; complete

purusha (purusa) [purush]: man; spirit, soul; applied sometimes to God as the living principle; the Self which abides in the heart of all things

purushakara [purushukaar]: personal effort

purushartha [purushaartha]: human ends; objectives worthy of human pursuit (dharma, artha, kama and moksha)

purushottama [ ]: Supreme Divine Being

purva [poorv]: previous

purva paksha [poorv puk^sh]: arguments advanced by the opponent

purva samskara [poorv sumskaar]: latent tendencies



Raja Yoga [raaj yog]: the principle system of Yoga as taught by Patanjali

rajas [rujus]: one of the three primal qualities – described as red, the principle of activity; energy; passion; restlessness

rajju-sarpa [rujju surp]: rope-snake; a rope looking like a snake in a dim light

randhra [ ]: aperature; see Brahmarandhra

rasa [rus]: bliss

rasasvada [rusaasvaad]: taste of bliss in the absence of thoughts

ravi marga [ruvi maarg]: path of the sun

rechaka [rechuk]: exhalation

rishi (rshi) [r^shi]: a seer; a sage

Rudra [rudruH]: Siva in his aspect as Destroyer

rupa [roop]: beautiful form



sabdanuviddha [sh^ubdunuviddh]: associated with sound

sad guru [sud guru]: true guru

Sada Siva [sudaa sh^iv]: Siva as eternal goodness

sadhak(a) [saadhuk]: a spiritual aspirant; one who follows a method of spiritual discipline; the stage following mumuksku, where the seeker becomes convinced that he is the beingness or consciousness

sadhana [saadhun]: method of spiritual practice; path

sadhana-chatushtaya [saadhun chutushtuya]: the four qualifications expected in an aspirant

sadhu [saadhu]: ascetic; sage; pious or righteous man; a sanyasin

sadhu seva [saadhu sev]: service rendered to sages

sadhya [ ]: thing to be accomplished

sadsisya [sudsh^ishya]: true disciple

sadyomukti [sudyomukti]: immediate Liberation

saguna [sugun]: with attributes

saguna upasana [sugun upaasun]: meditation on Brahman with attributes

Sagunabrahman [sugunubruhm]: the Absolute conceived of as endowed with qualities

sahaja [suhuj]: natural; one’s natural state

sahaja jnani [suhuj j^naani]: sage in the state of sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi

sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi [suhuj nirvikulp sumaadhi]: natural state of absorption in the Self with no concepts

sahaja samadhi [suhuj sumaadhi]: samadhi which comes naturally and is present always

sahasradala [ ]: the thousand petalled lotus; center of illumination in crown of the head

sahasrara [suhusraar]: the highest yogic center located in the brain

sajatiya [sujaateeya]: of the same kind

sakama [sukaam]: with desire

sakshat [suk^shaat]: here and now

sakshatkaram [suk^shaatkaarum]: direct realization

sakshi(n) [suk^shi(n)]: witness; the Self

sakti (shakti) [sh^ukti]: power; energy; force

sakti pata [sh^ukti paat]: descent of divine power on a person

sama [sum]: equal, common

samadhi [sumaadhi]: advanced state of meditation; absorption in the Self; Oneness; the mind becoming identified with the object of meditation

samana [ ]: one of the ten vital airs

samanya [saamaanya]: common, general, ordinary

samasta [sumust]: whole

samatva [sumutva]: equality

sambodhi [sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment

sambogakaya [ ]: the body in which Enlightened Beings enjoy the rewards of liberation from worldly things and in which they can appear to other beings in insubstantial form

samjna [sumj^na]: discernment

samjnana [sumj^naan]: awareness; perception

samkalpa(s) [sumkulp]: fancies

samrajya [saamraajya]: empire

samsara [sumsaar]: the realm of relativity, transience and illusion; the process of worldly life; the bondage of life, death and rebirth

samskara(s) [sumskaar]: innate tendencies; impressions created by previous actions and thoughts

samskrta [sumskr^t]: the impermanent; Chinese yu wei

samvid [ ]: true awareness

samvit [sumvit]: consciousness; knowledge

samyak-sambodhi [sumyuk sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment

samyamana [ ]: one-pointedness of mind

sanchita (s. karma) [sunchit kurm]: accumulated karma of former births that still remains to be experienced

sandeha [sundeha]: doubt

sanga [sung]: association; brotherhood

sangsara [sumsaar]: see samsara

sankalpa [ ]: intention; thought; desire; imagination; volition, mental activity, tendencies and attachments

Sankhya [saankhya]: one of the six systems of Indian philosophy

sannidhi [sunnidhi]: presence

sannyasa (sanyasa) [sunnyaas]: asceticism, renunciation

sannyasasrama [sunnyusaash^rum]: the last of the four stations of life

sannyasi(n) [sunnyaasi(n)]: an ascetic; one who belongs to the fourth stage of life

santi [sh^aanti]: peace

santodanta [ ]: one who is calm and self-controlled

sanyasin [sunnyaasin]: see sannyasin

sarira [sh^ureer]: body

sariri [sh^ureeri]: dweller in the body

sarira traya [sh^ureer truya]: the three bodies, namely the physical, subtle and causal

sarupa [ ]: with form; having form

sarva [surv]: all

sarvajna [survuj^na]: omniscient

sarvajnatvam [survuj^nutvum]: omniscience

sarvatma bhava [survaatma bhaav]: abidance in Oneness

Sarvesvara [survesh^vur]: the supreme Lord

sastra (shastra) [sh^aastra]: scripture; science; a sacred treatise or a commentary on a sutra

sat [sut]: good; existence; being; reality

sat-chit-ananda [sut chit aanund]: being-consciousness-bliss

satsang(a) [sutsung]: association with the wise

sattva (satva, sattwa) [suttva]: purity; one of the three primal qualities of prakriti – described as white

sattvapatti [sutvaaputti]: realization; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

sattvic [saattvik]: pure

satya [sutya]: Truth; the real

savikalpa samadhi [suvikulp sumaadhi]: a state of concentration in which the distinction between the knower, knowledge and known is not yet lost

sayujya [saayujya]: union; identity

shadadhara [shudaadhaar]: the six yogic centers

Shakti [sh^ukti]: see sakti, prakriti ; represented mythologically as the wife of a god; Reality; Self; Power of Creation

shastra [sh^aastra]: see sastra

siddha [ same ]: one who has acquired supernatural powers and is capable of working miracles; a perfected Yogi

siddhi [ same ]: supernatural power; realization; attainment

siddhis: traditionally there are eight siddhis or “divine perfections/powers”, as attributes of Siva: anima: smallness, mahima: greatness, garima: weight, laghima: lightness, prapti: free access, prakamya: doing at wish, vasitva: control over the elements and isvara: lordship over all.

sila [sh^eel]: the moral precepts observed by Buddhism

sishya [sh^ishya]: disciple; fit student

Siva [sh^iv]: God as destroyer and restorer of worlds

Sivoham [sh^ivohum]: I am Siva

sloka [sh^lok]: a stanza in Sanskrit; a verse of praise

Skanda [skunduH]: younger son of Siva; leader of the divine hosts

skandha [ ]: one of the five components (skandhas) of personality; inherited tendencies, physical and mental

smriti [smr^ti]: memory; scriptures other than the Vedas

soham [sohum]: I am He (Brahman)

sparsa [spursh^]: touch

sphurana (sphurna) [sphurun]: manifestation; throbbing or breaking; bursting forth; vibration

sraddha [sh^ruddhaa]: faith; earnestness

sravaka [sh^ruvuk?]: one who approaches the Dharma as a result of hearing it preached

sravana [sh^ruvun]: hearing of the Truth, from the Guru

srishti drishti [sr^shti dr^shti]: gradual creation

srota [sh^rot]: hearer

srotra [sh^rotra]: ear

sruti [sh^ruti]: sacred text; Vedas, heard by sages in their transcendental state and transmitted to disciples by word of mouth

sthitaprajna [sthitupraaj^na?]: one established in wisdom

sthiti [ same ]: being; existing

sthula [sthool]: gross

sthula sarira [sthool sh^ureer]: physical body

stotram [stotrum]: hymn of praise

stuti [ same ]: devotional singing

subhechcha [sh^ubechchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’]: desire for enlightenment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

suddha [sh^uddh]: pure

suddha sattva [sh^uddh suttva]: essentially pure

suddha sattva svarupa [sh^uddh suttva svuroop]: the form of purity

sukha [ same ]: happiness

sukha asana [sukh aasun]: easy and comfortable sitting posture

sukshma [sook^shm]: subtle

sukshma sarira [sook^shm sh^ureer]: subtle body

sunya [sh^oonya]: blank; the Void

sunyata [ ]: the emptiness of all separate things; the impermanence and unreality of all forms

sunyavadin [sh^oonuvaadin]: nihilist

sushumna (susumna) [sushumn]: one of the yogic nerves, through which the kundalini rises

sushupti (susupti) [sushupti]: dreamless sleep

sutra [sootra]: string; aphorism; actual teaching attributed to Gautama Buddha or very occasionally someone else

suvasana [suvaasunaa]: good tendency

svagata [svugut]: within itself

svami [svaami]: see swami

svapna [svupna]: dream; dreaming state

svarga [svurg]: heaven

svaroopa (swarupa) [svuroop]: essential nature; true nature of Being; real form, unconditioned by rajas (activity) and tamas (inertia)

svarupa nishta [svuroop nishtha]: abidance in the Self

swami [svaami]: mystic or yogi; one who is in control of himself; one’s own master

swaraj [svuraaj]: independence

swatantra [svutuntra]: independence

swechcha [svechchh; conjunct ‘ch’ and ‘chh’]: of one’s own will



tadakaranilai [tudaakaarunilai]: abiding in the form of That (the Self)

taijasa [taijus]: the individual being in dream; brilliance

tamas [tumus]: inertia; darkness; ignorance; ego; one of the three primal qualities – described as black

tanha [tunhaa]: thirst (for living)

tanmatra(s) [tunmaatra]: elements in their subtle forms

tanmaya [tunmuya]: full of the Self

tanmaya nishta [tunmuya nishtha]: abidance in the Self

tanumanasa [tunumaanus]: tenuous mind; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

tapas (tapasya) [tupus (tupusyaa)]: austerity

tapobhrashta [tupobhrusht]: one who has fallen away from his auterities

tapta-aya-pindavat [tupt uya pinduvut]: like a red-hot iron ball

Tat [tut]: That; Brahman

Tat tvam asi [tut tvum usi]: ‘That thou art’

Tathagata [tuthaagut]: a Buddha, literally the Thus-Gone; the Suchness of all Dharmas

tathata [ ]: Suchness; essence of mind; Buddha-nature; Tao; true Self

tattva [tuttva]: truth; essence of a thing

tattva bhoda [tuttva bodh]: knowledge of the Truth

tattva jnana [tuttva j^naan]: knowledge of Brahman or Atman

tattvam [tuttvuM]: Reality; Truth

tejas [tejus]: effulgence

tejo rupa [tejo rup]: of the form of light

tejomaya [tejomuya]: full of light

tirtha [teertha]: a sacred river or tank

Tripitaka [ ]: the entire collection of Buddhist scriptures

triputi [ same ]: triad like seer, seen and seeing

turavu (Tamil) [turuvu]: renunciation

turiyatita (turiwateeta) [tureeyaatit]: beyond the fourth state; the Self

turya (turiya) [ same ]: the fourth state beyond waking, dreaming and deep sleep; ever present and unchanging witness-Consciousness

turyaga [turyugaa]: beyond words; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

tyaga [tyaag]: giving up



udana [udaan]: one of the vital airs, having its seat in the neck, controlling the intake of food and air

udasinam [udaaseenum]: indifference

upadesa [upudesh^]: instruction or guidance of a Guru

upadhi [upaadhi]: limiting adjunct; subtitle; body-related

Upanisad(s) [upunishud]: philosophical writings forming part of the Vedas; knowledge portion of the Vedas

upasaka [upaasuk]: meditator; layman who lives according to certain strict rules

upasana [upaasun]: meditation; contemplation

upasana sthana [upaasun sthaan]: seat of meditation

uttama [ ]: highest grade



vac (vak) [vaac]: speech

vachyartha [vaachyaartha]: literal meaning

vada [vaad]: theory; disputation

vaikhari [vaikhuri]: audible sound

Vaikuntha [vaikuntha]: the abode of Vishnu

vairagya [vairaagya]: dispassion; nonattachment

Vaishnavite (Vaishnav) [vaishnuv]: worshipper of Vishnu

vajra [vujra]: imperishable, real, ultimate; literally diamond or adamantine

Vajrayana [ ]: the school of Mahayana Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia, commonly called Lamaism in the West

varistha [vurishtha]: the most excellent

varnasrama dharma [vurnaash^rum dhurm]: dharma of the various castes and stages of life

vasana [vaasun]: habit of the mind; latent tendency, impression or predisposition due to experiences of former lives; subtle desire

vasana kshaya [vaasun k^shuya]: cessation of vasanas

vastu [vustu]: substance; reality

vastutah [vustutuH]: in reality

Vasudeva [vaasudev]: Krishna as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord who created the world

vayu [vaayuH]: air; vital breath; the Wind god

Veda [ved]: sacred lore; scriptures revealed through the Rishis (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas)

vedana [vedunaa]: reception of sensation

Vedanta [vedaant]: absolute Truth as established by the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita as interpreted by Vyasa; the end or consummation of the Vedas

veena [veen]: a stringed instrument

vibhakti [vibhukti]: separation

vibhuti [vibhooti]: sacred ashes; God’s glory; supernatural power

vichara [vichaar]: inquiry into the true nature of the Self

vichara marga [vichaar maarg]: spiritual path of inquiry

vicharana [vichaarun]: investigation; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

videha mukta [videha mukt]: a liberated being after he has left the body

videha mukti [videha mukti]: Self-realization after leaving the body

vidya [vidyaa]: knowledge (of Brahman)

vijatiya [vijaatiya]: of a different kind

vijnana [vij^naan]: spiritual knowledge; discriminating the real from the unreal; principle of pure intelligence

vijnanamaya kosa [vij^naanumuya kosh^]: sheath of the intellect

vijnanatma [vij^nunutma]: the ignorant self

vijnata [vij^naataa]: knower

vikalpa(s) [vikulp]: doubt(s)

vikshepa [vik^shep]: diversity

vikshipta [vik^shipt]: distracted

vinaya [vinuya]: the discipline practiced by Buddhist monks; humility

viparita [vipureet]: contrary

virat [viraat]: macrocosm; totality of gross beings; the physical world

virya [veerya]: zeal; vitality

visesha [vish^esh]: particular; special

vishaya [vishuya]: object

Vishnu [vishnu]: God as preserver

vishya vasana(s) [-?- vaasun]: predisposition toward sense enjoyments

visishta [vish^isht]: qualified

visishtadvaitin [vish^ishtaadvaitin]: one who believes in a modified form of non-duality

visranti [vish^raanti]: repose

visva [visva]: the individual being in the waking state; the all

visvarupa (v. darsana) [visvuroop dursh^un]: God seen as the universe

vivarta vada [vivurt vaad]: theory that Brahman appears as the world, soul and God, like a rope appears as a snake, without itself undergoing any change

vivechana [vivechun]: discrimination

viveka [vivek]: wisdom; discrimination between the Real and the unreal; disciminative inquiry

viyoga [viyog]: separation

vritti [vr^tti]: modification of the mind; mental concept; thought-wave

vyakta [ ]: the karma-bound individuality

vyakti [ ]: the transient personality

vyana [vyaan]: one of the ten vital airs, causing the circulation of the blood

vyaptam [vyaaptum]: pervaded

Vyasa [ ]: the great sage who wrote the Brahma Sutras

vyashti [vyushti]: part

vyavahara (vyavaharika) [vyuvuhaar (vyaavuhaarik)]: empirical

vyavahara satya [vyuvuhaar sutya]: phenomenal existence



yaga [yaag]: ritualistic sacrifice

yajna [yuj^na]: sacrifice

yama [ ]: self-control; the first rung in the ladder of eightfold yoga (abstention from lying, killing, theft, lust, covetousness etc.); also, the god of death (Yama)

yoga [yog]: union (with the Supreme); literally, a yoke or discipline; the technique of meditation whereby the individual brings himself into unity with the Ultimate Reality; the four paths to this union are jnana , the path of knowledge, karma , the path of action, bhakti , the path of devotion, and raja , the royal path, which is a synthesis of the other three; the philosophy of the sage Patanjali

yoga marga(s) [yog maarg]: yogic path(s)

yoga maya [yog maayaa]: magical power

yogabhrashta [yogubhrusht]: one who has slipped from yoga

yogarudha [yogaaroodh]: one who has attained yoga

yogi [ same ]: follower of a path of yoga

Yogiraja [yogiraaj]: king of yogis; Sri Vasudeva

yugapat srishti [yuguput sr^shti]: simultaneous creation